UPDATE: Please make sure to read Alexander’s comments on git rebase –interactive
UPDATE: If you need to unstage a file prior to your first commit:
$ git rm --cached filename
Some of the common questions I get are about how to reset or revert changes in Git. There are two typical scenarios you have to deal with. One is if you haven’t committed the code yet. The other is if you have committed the code.
Before you have committed the code
Well, if you want to unstage a file you simply do the following:
Say you staged a change (“git add”) and you realize you either don’t want the file tracked or the change staged. git reset is the command that will do this:
$ git reset HEAD filename
One of the suggestions I’ve read about and have given is to create an alias called unstage:
$ git config --global alias.unstage 'reset HEAD'
So now instead of:
$ git reset HEAD README
you can do:
$ git unstage README
I personally just stick to git reset HEAD filename. “Why?” you ask. It’s so that if I have to use git on another system that doesn’t have my aliases, I know the commands.
Another common question is “How do I undo an unstaged/uncommitted change? I just want to roll my file back…”. git checkout — filename handles this:
$ git checkout -- README
This will roll the README file back to the last committed version in the working directory. Another question after I answer this is, “Why do you have to put the two dashes there?” The two dashes are canonically called the “bare double dashes”. The reason they are there is because it ensures that the checkout command know that we are trying to roll back a file and not change branches. Remember that the typical usage of the checkout command is to change branches. If you had a branch called README, this command:
$ git checkout README
would checkout the README branch and not rollback the current README file in the working directory.
After you have committed the code
If you committed code that you realized you shouldn’t have, you have two options:
git revert will create a new commit which undoes a specifc commit that you pass to it. The usual use is to undo the last commit:
$ git revert HEAD
If you need to undo a commit that happened before the last commit you can pass it a treeish argument or a specific SHA1 of the commit you want to undo:
Revert the next-to-last commit:
$ git revert HEAD^
Revert a specific commit by SHA:
$ git revert f8c7dd34
Just be aware that if you pass a reference to a commit other than the last one, if there are any merge conflicts created by undoing the change, you will have to deal with those at the time of your new commit (the revert one).
git commit —amend
git commit —amend is another command that allows you to change your last commit. Say I forgot to stage a file for the commit and I need to edit the commit message:
$ git commit -m 'initial commit' $ git add awesome_file $ git commit --amend
My visual editor of choice will open with the prior commit message allowing me to edit it, I change the message, save it and exit. The previous commit is overridden by adding the content of my awesome_file and now has my new commit message. Personally, I’ve only had to use this a couple times because I’m usually editing tracked files and by doing git commit -am “message” I rarely forget to stage my files. The times I’ve had to use git commit —amend is when I forget to add/stage a new/untracked file.