How we got rid of the database–part 6

In this series of posts I discuss how we do CQRS and event sourcing. One of our main goals was to reduce the overall complexity of our solution which ultimately led us to the point where we got rid of our database. Please see my previous posts for further details (part 1, part 2, part 3, part 4 and part 5).

In this post we will discuss how events generated by our aggregates are serialized and then stored in the event store. Remember, we do not use any database to store data and thus have to provide our own persistence mechanism.

Note: the code snippets presented in this post represents a simplified version of code found in Lokad.CQRS. This code is used to show the core concepts.

Serializing and deserializing an event

Since we are not going to use a database to store our data we are now on our own. Let’s first choose a serialization format that suits our needs. What do we need?

  • Serialization and deserialization should be fast
  • The serialized data should be as compact as possible
  • The serialization process should be tolerant for changes in the events, e.g. allow us to rename properties of the event or add new properties to the event

It turns out that Google’s protocol buffer format is the ideal choice. And luckily we find a Nuget package which gives us an implementation of the serializer/deserializer for .NET.

Let’s define an interface that provides what we need


We have a method SerializeEvent which accepts an event and returns the serialized event as array of bytes. Of course we then need the counterpart, which does the opposite. The method DeserializeEvent accepts an array of bytes and returns the deserialized event.

Now please note that the SerializeEvent method accepts any event that implements IEvent<IIdentity>. The serialization of the event is no problem, but to be able to deserialize the event we need to know the concrete type of the event we had previously serialized. Thus we need to somehow serialized the type or rather the contract name of the event together with the content of the event. This fact slightly complicates the whole process. But as you will see, it is still no rocket science involved. Each step is simple.

Lets first define a helper class Formatter which contains a contract name of an event and a delegate to serialize and another to deserialize this event


As you can see, the serializer delegate takes an object and serializes it into a stream. The deserializer delegate takes a stream (containing the serialized event) and deserializes its content and returns it as object.

We want to create an instance of Formatter for each event that we have in our system. To get all events we can use code similar to this


The result will be our know event types. Note that line 18 will be evident in a minute.

The Formatter class introduced above is hosted by the EventSerializer class which is responsible for the effective event serialization/deserialization. We inject the known event types via constructor into this class. The EventSerializer takes these known types and creates two dictionaries out of it

  • one that gives a formatter instance provided the event type and
  • the other gives the event type provided its (contract-) name


We use the RuntimeTypeModel class of the protobuf-net library to get a formatter (the instance that serializes/deserializes the event to an array of bytes). We also use an extension method GetContractName to get the contract name of the event type. It is defined as follows


In the above method we take the namespace of the event from the [DataContract] attribute with which we have to decorate each event in order to make it serializable using the protocol buffer format (see our NewTaskScheduled event).

With all this preparation the actual serialization of the event is quite easy


The method Serialize shown above takes an event instance and its type and serializes it into the given destination stream.

The deserialization is a two step process. First we have the contract name of the event and want to get the corresponding (event-) type


Having this type we can deserialize the event


The above method gets the stream from which it reads the serialized content of the event as well as the event type. The method returns the deserialized event (as object).

That was not so bad, wasn’t it? No magic or rocket science needed so far.

Ok, then we can now discuss the implementation of the IEventStreamer interface that I introduced at the beginning of this section. This class that we will now discuss not only writes the (serialized) content of the event to a stream but also some message contract information (or message header; where an event is a message).

First of all the EventStreamer class uses our EventSerializer


Let’s now show the SerializeEvent method and then discuss the various parts of it.


The method consists of 3 parts

  • line 22-27: we use the event serializer class discussed above to serialize the event (=content)
  • line 29-36: we serialize a message contract which contains the event type name (=contract name), the length of the content as well as the content position (=messageContractBuffer)
  • line 38-45: we open a stream and first write the (serialized) message header contract into it (line 41). Then we append the messageContractBuffer to the stream and finally we append the content to the stream. Last we return the content of the stream (line 44)

The DeserializeEvent method has to do the exact opposite of the above method. Let’s have a look at it


On line 50 we create a memory stream around the buffer containing the serialized data. Then we have again our 3 steps

  • line 52-53: read and deserialize the message header contract. From it we get the length of the message header that will be deserialized in step 2
  • line 55-58: read and deserialize the message header. From the previous step we know exactly how many bytes we have to read (header.HeaderBytes)
  • line 60-65: read and deserialize the event. From step two we know the length of the content and thus how many bytes we have to read (contract.ContentSize).

To be complete I also have to show the MessageContract and the MessageHeaderContract classes. the MessageContract class contains information about the event (i.e. the event).


We specifically need the contract name and the size of the event when it is serialized (the content length). Since the message contract is serialized by using protocol buffer we have decorated it with [DataMember] attributes.

The MessageHeaderContract contains information about the MessageContract, namely the length of the message contract when it is serialized. It also contains logic to write and read itself to a stream. We do not need protocol buffer here since it is trivial and of fixed length (just an long – which is 8 bytes long).


With this we have the basis to be able to store events in the event store and subsequently read them back from the event store when needed. Let’s now look at the event store in detail.

Saving events to the event store

We want to create a file per aggregate instance which contains all events generated by this particular aggregate. Any new event is serialized into an array of bytes (as discussed in the previous section) and then appended to this file. With each event we also store

  • the length of the serialized event (the data length),
  • the version of the event (starting from 1 for the first event in the life cycle of an aggregate) and
  • the hash code of the serialized event to recognize whether the data is corrupt or has been tampered.

Let’s start and create a class that allows us to append an array of bytes (the serialized event) to the file which contains all events of an aggregate. This class has an Append method which accepts as parameter the said array of bytes.

Note that for write operations the file is opened in a mode that allows a single writer but many concurrent readers (line 16).


We use a helper class TapeStreamSerializer to do the actual write operation. Note that in this first draft we always write version = 1 to the file, no matter how many events we already have stored before.

Lets now look into the TapeStreamSerializer class. The WriteRecord method uses a binary serializer to write the record into a memory stream. We also use the SHA1Managed class of the .NET framework to calculate the hash code of the serialized event.


On line 22 to 24 we create a header containing the length of the serialized event (the data array) and write it into the memory stream. Then on line 26 we write the actual data array into the memory stream and on lines 27 to 31 we add a footer section to the stream. The footer contains once again the length of the data array, the version of the event and the hash code computed from the data array.

Once we have everything written to the memory stream we append this data to the file (line 34) and we are done.

The above method uses two simple helper methods to write a 64bit integer (lines 23, 28 and 29) and a hash code (line 30) into the memory stream.


Reading events from the event store

We now want a way to read all existing events of a given aggregate from the event store. For this purpose we implement the ReadRecords method in our FileTapeStream class.


On line 42 we make sure we arrived at the end of the file and no more records can be retrieved. On line 45 we again use the helper class TapeStreamSerializer to do the actual reading of a single event record from the file.

The above method returns an array of TapeRecord items. A TapeRecord item contains the serialized event as well as its version


Let’s now look into the ReadRecord method of the helper class. We basically have to revert the write operation we described earlier. First we try to locate/read and validate the header information (line 72-74). The header has a fixed length, thus we know exactly how many bytes to read. Then we read the data (lines 76 and 77). We know how many bytes we need to read since the data length was stored in the header. Finally we read and verify the footer which is also of fixed length (line 79-92). Specifically we make sure that the stored hash code corresponds to the ad-hoc calculated hash code of the data array (line 83-91).


We use the following helper method to read a 64bit integer


and this one to read the hash code


and finally this one to read and verify a specific signature like e.g. ‘header start’ or ‘footer end’.



In this post we discussed in detail how events generated by aggregates are serialized and the appended to the event store. I also showed how those serialized events can be read from the event store.

In my next post I will discuss how we can integrate this code into our sample application. Stay tuned.

About Gabriel Schenker

Gabriel N. Schenker started his career as a physicist. Following his passion and interest in stars and the universe he chose to write his Ph.D. thesis in astrophysics. Soon after this he dedicated all his time to his second passion, writing and architecting software. Gabriel has since been working for over 25 years as a consultant, software architect, trainer, and mentor mainly on the .NET platform. He is currently working as senior software architect at Alien Vault in Austin, Texas. Gabriel is passionate about software development and tries to make the life of developers easier by providing guidelines and frameworks to reduce friction in the software development process. Gabriel is married and father of four children and during his spare time likes hiking in the mountains, cooking and reading.
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  • Steven Burman

    Oh, I see. That is much simpler than stuffing a json object into Mongo or Raven :P

  • Etienne Tremblay

    You got rid of the database, but switched it for more low level serialization file problems.  Plus you have to do the tooling to diagnose problems in your files.

    • Anonymous

       I see, I have to write another blog post about why we do not use a database. A lot of readers do not seem to completely understand our motivations…
      Just as a short note: we do not trade in “the devil with the belzebub”.

      • Dominic Delmolino

        Looking forward to that post — so far nothing I’ve read in this series explains why you needed to get rid of the database. You still have a database, you just call it a file store. Sounds like you *HAVE* gotten rid of the need for the application to be bound to a data model ala an ORM, which does sound good.

    • @google-90a2a7eb05eb0368cb8169f319917d22:disqus having run ES-based for years in various environments (e.g. mixture of local servers and cloud deployments), I must admit that file-level problems are extremely rare. Mostly it is caused by the fact that we store SHA1 with each record, while verifying it on each operation. 
      Second, it is extremely easy to set up continuous and immediate replication to multiple secondary locations off-site, to reduce disk corruption risks.

  • Etienne Tremblay

    But I find this serie of post very interesting.

    • @google-90a2a7eb05eb0368cb8169f319917d22:disqus , in the case of thorough event sourcing, the simplest approach to versioning is to simply create a new event (_v2) with additional field. More complex scenarios involve, for example, use of Protocol Buffers (with their native ability to handle changes in serialization contracts) and use of in-memory upgraders to make sure that such events apply to the entire event history.
      Fortunately, when your aggregates are designed using DDD approach, events do not change that often.

  • Jiggaboo

    Aaaaa. I ‘ve read all 6 posts in 30 minutes and there is no next post and I have to wait (don’t know how long) for post no 7. That’s why I prefer books.

    • Anonymous

      Sorry for the delay, but I was just too busy lately. But the next post is nearly ready to be posted. Thus stay tuned :)

  • C Granwehr

    Hello Gabriel,  thanks for the so far great introduction into CQRS an ES. After a summerday outside in the garden, watching Greg Young’s  long video, your posts were very refreshing. I mostly appreciated the sample code you provided. Debugging working code helps a dummy like me a lot to  understand what your’re talking about. Please also integrate this and further posts into your solution (and don’t forget to spend your free time without a computer)

    Liebi Grües us de Schwyz von mir und dä Alex.

  • Bono

    Did I miss the follow up post?

  • mojam

    When we will get Part 7? Is it yet released? Am I missing something?

    Thanks and best regards
    Md. Mojammel Haque