“Refactoring” Notes

I’m not going to bother with a review of [Martin

Fowler](http://martinfowler.com/)‘s [_Refactoring:

Improving the Design of Existing Code_](http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0201485672). It’s good enough that

its catalog, available in expanded form online,

now provides the definitive vocabulary shared by dozens of refactoring

tools across nearly every major development platform. Though I was

already familiar with the majority of the catalog, I thought it would be

worth reading the other chapters, the notes from which you will find

below with my additions indicated with emphasis. I’ve also

included thoughts on various entries in the catalog.

Principles in Refactoring

  • 58: You don’t decide to refactor, you refactor because you want to

    do something else, and refactoring helps you do that other thing.

  • 62: Beck – Maintaining the current behavior of the system, how can

    you make your system more valuable, either by increasing its quality,

    or by reducing its cost. … Now you have a more valuable program because

    it has qualities that we will appreciate tomorrow. … There is a

    second, rarer refactoring game. Identify indirection that isn’t paying

    for itself and take it out.

  • 62: Problems with Refactoring
    • Don’t know limitations
    • Is refactoring because a tool tells you to a bad reason?
  • 65: Modify your code ownership policies to smooth refactoring.
  • 66: Code has to work before you refactor.
  • Ward Cunningham: Unfinished refactoring = technical debt.
  • 68: You still think about potential changes, you still consider

    flexible solutions. But instead of implementing these flexible

    solutions, you ask yours, **“How difficult is it going to be to

    refactor a simple solution into the flexible solution?”** If, as

    happens most of the time, the answer is “pretty easy,” then you just

    implement the simple solution.

  • 70: Changes that improve performance usually make the program

    harder to work with.

  • If you optimize all code equally, you end up with 90 percent of the

    optimizations wasted, because you are optimizing code that isn’t run


Bad Smells in Code

An expanded catalog of code smells is available online.

  1. Duplicate Code
  2. Long Method
  3. Large Class
  4. Long Parameter List
  5. Divergent Change
    • One class that suffers many kinds of changes
  6. Shotgun Surgery
    • One change that alters many classes
  7. Feature Envy
  8. Data Clumps
  9. Primitive Obsession
  10. Switch Statements
  11. Parallel Inheritance Hierarchies
  12. Lazy Class
  13. Speculative Generality
  14. Temporary Field
  15. Message Chains
    • a.k.a. Law of Demeter
  16. Middle Man
  17. Inappropriate Intimacy
    • Circular Reference => Change Bidirectional Association to


  18. Alternative Classes with Different Interfaces
  19. Incomplete Library Class
    • Introduce Foreign Method => Extension Methods
  20. Data Class
    • Favor setters and encapsulated collections
    • _Very OO-centric – FP would argue that immutable data

      classes are preferred_

    • Hide Method => Immutability
    • 87: “Data classes are like children. They are okay as a

      starting point, but to participate as a grownup object, they need

      to take some responsibility.”

  21. Refused Bequest
    • Smell is stronger if the subclass is reusing behavior but does

      not want to support the interface of the superclass.


    • Apply Replace Inheritance with Delegation

    • 88: When you feel the need to write a comment, first try to

      refactor the code so that any comment becomes superfluous.

Building Tests

  • Tests should be fully automatic and self-checking.
  • Interesting that a distinction is drawn between unit and

    functional tests, but there’s no mention of integration tests as middle


  • 97: “When you gget a bug report, start by writing a unit test

    that exposes the bug.”</p>

    • This is my #1 use case for test-first
  • 98: “The key is to test the areas that you are most worried

    about going wrong.”

  • 101: “Don’t let the fear that testing can’t catch all bugs stop

    you from writing the tests that will catch most bugs.”

If this is the first you’ve read of unit testing, check out a book

dedicated to the subject like [Pragmatic

Unit Testing](http://solutionizing.net/2010/05/17/review-pragmatic-unit-testing-in-c-with-nunit-2nd-edition/ “Review: Pragmatic Unit Testing
In C# with NUnit (2nd Edition)”).

Catalog Notes

  • Composing Methods
    • Replace Method with Method Object
      _local variables =>

      method object fields to facilitate extracting methods_

  • Moving Features Between Objects
    • Introduce Foreign Method = Extension Methods
    • Introduce Local Extension = Subclass or Proxy
  • Organizing Data
    • Replace Data Value with Object
      _replace primitive with a

      type that means something (decimal => Money)_

    • Replace Type Code with State/Strategy
      _inheritance is

      often abused, but this is one of its best use cases_

  • Simplifying Conditional Expressions
    • Introduce Null Object
      _OO approach to avoiding null checks,

      also not to be abused_

  • Making Method Calls Simpler
    • Separate Query from Modifier
      _mutation and query operations

      don’t mix_

    • Replace Parameter with Method
      _this rarely applies to

      new code, but rather is found in methods that have evolved over time_

    • Hide Method
      • Related: Remove from Interface — useful to let a method “hide

        in public” for easier testing without cluttering up its expected usage

        as implementer of an interface

    • Replace Error Code with Exception

      _if a circumstance is truly exceptional, exceptions are often better

      than error codes…_

    • Replace Exception with Test

      _…but if it’s not exceptional, don’t incur the overhead; for

      example, return a Null Object_

  • Dealing with Generalization
    • Extract Subclass, Superclass and Interface
    • Collapse Hierarchy
    • Form Template Method
    • Replace Inheritance with Delegation
    • Replace Delegation with Inheritance

Big Refactorings

  • 359: “Do as much as you need to achieve your real task. You can

    always come back tomorrow.”

  • 360: “You refactor not because it is fun but because there are

    things you expect to be able to do with your programs if you

    refactor that you can’t do if you don’t refactor.”</p>

    • I need to remember this!!

These are hard to identify, but provide the biggest return on

investment. Think of them as high-level goals accomplished through

low-level changes from the above catalog.

  • Tease Apart Inheritance
  • Convert Procedural Design to Objects
    • Also, Convert to Functions
  • Separate Domain from Presentation
    • MVP, MVC, MVVM…use something!
  • Extract Hierarchy
Unit Testing [Serializable]